FOUR CONVENTIONS IN THE WORLD OF GLOBAL HEALTH: SURVIVAL , FAIRNESS , PRODUCTION , AND SPIRIT

To justify policies, allocate resources, and assign different roles in the field of global health, the participating actors and institutions refer to a plural yet limited set of conventions. Their specific characteristics echo elements of the conventions that researchers identified in their studies of western culture, even if they are not identical with them. Elements from the spheres of international security, development, and medical discourses have given rise to distinct conventions in the world of global health. Yet, their basic structure as conventions, or “orders of worth,”: Each of them…

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HUMANITARIAN GOVERNANCE CHALLENGES FOR HUMANITARIAN AID AND DISASTER MANAGEMENT

Our notion that humanitarian governance must be understood as the interplay of different actors tallies with theories on governance. However, writing about humanitarian governance tends to overly focus on the international humanitarian system, neglecting local and national actors’ involvement. Also, governance theories of the 1990s show that state power is layered and fragmented, and that attaining collective purposes is not solely the domain of the state. The shift from ‘government’ to ‘governance’, showed how “the state becomes a collection of inter-organizational networks made up of governmental and societal actors with…

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THE GLOBALISATION OF PUBLIC HEALTH AND GLOBAL HEALTH GOVERNANCE

It is widely recognized that contemporary globalization is having a profound impact on the health of populations everywhere. Although increasing global integration is not an entirely new phenomenon, contemporary globalization has had an unprecedented impact on global public health and is creating new challenges for international law and policy. Globalization can be broadly understood as a process characterized by changes in a range of social spheres including economic, political, technological, cultural and environmental. These processes of global change are re-structuring human societies, ushering in new patterns of health and disease…

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WORLD HEALTH ORGANISATION 75TH ANNIVERSARY: CRITICAL ANALYSIS ON GLOBAL HEALTH LAW

The political, legal, economic and social contours of the current international landscape present major challenges for global health governance. If ameliorating the most common causes of disease, disability and premature death require global solutions, then the future is demoralizing. The states that bear the disproportionate burden of disease have the least capacity to do anything about it. And the states that have the wherewithal are deeply resistant to expending the political capital and economic resources necessary to truly make a difference to improve health outside their borders. When rich countries…

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BIOLOGICAL ARMS CONTROL AND DISARMAMENT REVIEW AND BIOLOGICAL WARFARES FUTURE

Negotiations to prohibit biological weapons became part of the agenda of the international community with the organization of the United Nations. Initial discussions focused on a treaty aimed at both chemical and biological weapons, but little progress was made until the mid-1960s. At the insistence of the British, negotiators began to focus on a treaty limited solely to biological weapons. The result was the 1972  Biological Weapons Convention (BWC), which prohibited possession of any biological and toxin weapons. Although the treaty does not define what constitutes a biological weapon, subsequent deliberations…

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GLOBAL GOVERNANCE REFORMING UNITED NATIONS 

Since its foundation in 1946, the United Nations has undergone a continuous process of reform, each phase reflecting the renewed priorities of its membership. The decolonization period and the subsequent independence of numerous States in Africa and Asia provided a unique opportunity for the United Nations to address the needs of the newly independent nations. Within twenty years of its creation, UN membership more than doubled reaching 118 by 1965. The emergence of new States showed the need for a strengthening of the United Nations system in the area of…

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DISEASE CHARACTERISTICS, INTERNATIONAL COMMITMENT AFFECT SURVEILLANCE QUALITY

Variation in the quality of global surveillance systems can be attributed in large measure to disease characteristics. Under certain circumstances— for example, if a disease can be eradicated or if it poses a high risk of a global pandemic—disease-specific control programs have attracted broad support and have employed this support to create comparatively effective surveillance systems. Surveillance for other diseases, including emerging infections has received less international support and is more limited. The best surveillance systems have been established to support international campaigns aimed at eradicating or eliminating certain diseases,…

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YOUTH MENTAL HEALTH CURRENT USE DEVELOPMENT AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR INTERVENTION AND DESIGN

The growing reliance of youth on online support for mental health represents an opportunity for providers of mental health services, apps, and other supports. Online spaces offer unique affordances that can help create scalable, personalized, and timely interventions. For example, we may be able to reach youth who are difficult to reach through more traditional clinical supports or in moments when current providers do not have visibility. Many people, especially youth, may not want traditional mental health support. An online screening platform hosted by Mental Health America, which has screened…

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DRUG DEVELOPMENT FOR COVID – 19 : CHALLENGES AND KEY CONSIDERATION FOR CLINICAL TRIAL DESIGNS

Identification of the 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) and the associated coronavirus disease (COVID- 19) global pandemic is the foremost human tragedy affecting our life today. This disease has reached nearly every country, causing significant morbidity and mortality as it continues to spread. The development of drugs and vaccines is critical to win the battle against the COVID-19 virus. At present, although different countries have employed different methods of controlling COVID-19 based on their national conditions and health-care systems, the general strategy is consistent: Flatten the growth curve of COVID-19 infections…

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COVID 19 THERAPEUTICS STRATEGIES

Till date, no potential therapeutic agents (antivirals) have been discovered to treat specifically this Covid -19 global disease. Currently, researchers all over the world are working aggressively to discover a potential drug. Drug discovery and development is a tedious /challenging task, takes several years, and involves billions of dollars. Numerous experiments and techniques have been aimed at preventing further spread of COVID-19 and to improve successful and secure therapeutics. Depending on the target, possible anti-CoV therapies can be classified into two categories: (1) those acting on the Covid itself and…

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THE IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON SEXUAL AND REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH AND RIGHTS

The drivers of conflict and vulnerability to climate change are multiple, complex, and oftentimes, cyclical, making it difficult to analyze their differentiated impacts on Sexual And Reproductive Health And Rights(SRHR) in isolation. As such, evidence related to the impacts of climate change on SRHR is often discussed more broadly in the context of these drivers of vulnerability, without distinguishing between, for example, post-disaster and conflict-affected settings. However, it is clear that settings of conflict and fragility are areas of high vulnerability in relation to SRHR and it is expected that…

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COVID – 19 AND CRISIS IN FAMILIES : IMPACTS AND ECONOMICAL REPERCUSSION OVERVIEW 

The coronavirus pandemic represents the biggest shock to the world economies since the great depression. COVID- 19 is/ was a seismic social shock even for families that lost no income due at least in part to abrupt school closures and the widespread threat of illness and death. In many instances, the school closures substantially increased the time that parents, especially mothers, spend with their children. For school  children, school closures and learning interruptions could threaten children’s learning and adjustment but the effects will depend on the quantity and quality of parent-child…

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IMPORTANCE OF ANTIBODY TITERS AMIDST COVID – 19 PANDEMIC AND ADOPTION OF cDNA MICROARRAY TECHNOLOGY FOR GLOBAL HEALTH STABILITY

An antibody titer is a test that can be done to find out that a person is immune. For this test, a blood sample is sent to a laboratory and tested for antibodies. If a person has developed a sufficient level of antibodies, they may not need the booster dose of vaccine. An important thing to be aware of before going to a booster Covid -19 dose such that • If you have a record of the previous vaccinations you have received, get your titers drawn first. • Measure your…

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DIVORCE EFFECTS ON CHILDREN’S BEHAVIOUR AND DEVELOPMENT 

Nowadays, one in four children will have to face their parents’ divorce and one in ten children live with only one of them, usually the mother. For all families, the divorce can trigger a series of changes potentially stressful for each member. The child and family tasks where before guided by two parents, now are responsibility of one, such as family roles and functioning can become chaotic. In the preceding months to divorce, many families face financial problems that could result in changes of home, school, and job. According to…

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DOHA DECLARATION : A GUIDE TO IMPLEMENTATION FOR PUBLIC HEALTH EMERGENCY

Though the Doha Declaration was initially received very well, anxiety again was widespread as about the interpretation of Paragraph 6 of the Declaration specifying when countries can import drugs produced elsewhere under compulsory Licensing(CL). A decision regarding the same was announced in 2003 and was adopted in the form of waiver of Article 31 (f) (that the compulsory Licensing(CL) would be predominantly for the supply of domestic market) in December 2005. As per this waiver, a country could issue a compulsory license on the basis of public health need either…

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