THE WEAPONIZATION OF OUTER SPACE: HARNESSING INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION

Given the environmental challenges that are unique to the space domain and the exponential increase in the number and different types of actors in space, tenets of cooperation, collaboration, and communication are necessary to avoid unwanted escalation of potential conflicts or friction. The need for clarity and transparency in space is paramount to continued access to and use of space. In the space domain, increased transparency is something from which we can all benefit. Exchange of information, particularly in respect of space situational awareness (SSA) and space traffic management, must…

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WORLD CONFLICTS: CHANGING NATURE OF WARFARE

A few decades ago, it was relatively easy to talk about the nature of warfare, as it was intimately linked to statecraft, so one identified an adversary state and prepared oneself accordingly. In fact, one could even quantify threats and capabilities to arrive at a predictable outcome. In the 21st century, this is no longer so. Shades of grey have crept in; threats are not easy to quantify and, sometimes, even to identify. There is a merging, a fusion of various types of warfare; international rules do not apply to…

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BIOLOGICAL ARMS CONTROL AND DISARMAMENT REVIEW AND BIOLOGICAL WARFARES FUTURE

Negotiations to prohibit biological weapons became part of the agenda of the international community with the organization of the United Nations. Initial discussions focused on a treaty aimed at both chemical and biological weapons, but little progress was made until the mid-1960s. At the insistence of the British, negotiators began to focus on a treaty limited solely to biological weapons. The result was the 1972  Biological Weapons Convention (BWC), which prohibited possession of any biological and toxin weapons. Although the treaty does not define what constitutes a biological weapon, subsequent deliberations…

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GLOBAL GOVERNANCE REFORMING UNITED NATIONS 

Since its foundation in 1946, the United Nations has undergone a continuous process of reform, each phase reflecting the renewed priorities of its membership. The decolonization period and the subsequent independence of numerous States in Africa and Asia provided a unique opportunity for the United Nations to address the needs of the newly independent nations. Within twenty years of its creation, UN membership more than doubled reaching 118 by 1965. The emergence of new States showed the need for a strengthening of the United Nations system in the area of…

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DRONE WARFARE AND INTERNATIONAL LAW

Under the United Nations Charter, states agree to “settle their international disputes in a peaceful manner” and “refrain in their international relations from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any state.” This is generally viewed as a blanket prohibition on the use of force by one state inside the borders of another sovereign state. Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter outlines just two exceptions to this prohibition. First, if the Security Council identifies “any threat to the peace, breach of the…

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DIGITAL AUTHORITARIANISM AND ITS EFFECTS ON HUMAN RIGHTS AND DEMOCRACY

Digital authoritarianism is “the use of digital information technology by authoritarian regimes to surveil, repress, and manipulate domestic and foreign populations”. Essentially it refers to the use of digital and technological means to increase control and limit the freedom and rights of citizens. For example, digital authoritarianism entails actions such as; limiting internet freedom, internet access and free speech online, collecting personal data for illegitimate purposes, surveillance and tracking of online activities, especially those of regime critics. We can sums up digital authoritarianism in six different techniques: surveillance, censorship, social…

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DOHA DECLARATION : A GUIDE TO IMPLEMENTATION FOR PUBLIC HEALTH EMERGENCY

Though the Doha Declaration was initially received very well, anxiety again was widespread as about the interpretation of Paragraph 6 of the Declaration specifying when countries can import drugs produced elsewhere under compulsory Licensing(CL). A decision regarding the same was announced in 2003 and was adopted in the form of waiver of Article 31 (f) (that the compulsory Licensing(CL) would be predominantly for the supply of domestic market) in December 2005. As per this waiver, a country could issue a compulsory license on the basis of public health need either…

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UNITED NATIONS 75TH ANNIVERSARY: CRITICAL ANALYSIS

“The new millennium presents the most appropriate time to review the history of United Nations(UN) institution, its successes and failures, and expectations for its future.” Opinions may differ about the successes and failure of the United Nations as an instrument for world peace and security. But everyone will agree that it has played a crucial role in the economic and social advancement of the people. United Nation’s efforts in the early Cold War era concentrated on the relationships between nations and the issues of war and peace. The UN has…

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CHINA : TREAT PERCEPTION

The People’s Liberation Army’s (PLA) perception that China is facing unprecedented security risks is a driving factor in China’s approach to national security. In May 2015, China’s State Council Information ion Office published a white paper titled China’s Military Strategy, which outlined how Beijing views the global security environment, China’s role in that environment, and how the People’s Liberation Army(PLA) supports that role. The document presented a vision for the PLA’s services and emerging security domains that would trans form the PLA from its legacy posture to one focused more on…

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GLOBAL COMPACT FOR INFECTIOUS DISEASES AND LEARNING OUTCOMES FROM PANDEMIC

In order to combat with infectious diseases, it is essential a new strategy based on the creation of a four-Point International compact for Infectious Diseases.  The first global compact for Infectious Diseases is required to establish, maintain and monitor international standards for surveillance and reporting of data and knowledge of infectious diseases using advanced information technology to ensure timeliness, interoperability and security, including but not limited to: –Epidemiological data,  –Information about new and ongoing clinical trials –Data regarding new compounds and targets  –Standardized material transfer agreements –Services and skills  The…

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ELECTION WIN AND TERROR ATTACKS 

Nowadays to damage and threaten democracies, the terrorism is become a biggest challenge to the world. It’s damage the legitimacy of the state. By analysing the electoral mandates, we can get a better understanding of how citizens reward or punish governments in the aftermath of terrorist attacks. Along with better understanding of how terrorist’s actions do corrosive effects on the legitimacy of democratic systems. Does terrorism turn voters against governments, or do citizens “rally around the flag”? Understanding the relationship between terrorist attacks and electoral behaviour is key to find…

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URBAN SPRAWL

In recent decades, urban growth has not been adopted with residents needs. As a result of this process, many lands have been utilized for construction. The word of “Urban Sprawl” means more growth than the usual and what makes it different from urban growth is this excessive nature. Although sprawl is an American phenomenon, but it should be indicated that it’s different by environmental, economic, social and political situations.  Cities tend to growth and planned growth is reached while there is an appropriate proportion between urban growth and urban organism. But…

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