REFORMS AFTER TERROR

Reforming a nation’s security services is an inevitable consequence of large-scale terrorist incidents. The country like India had seen counter terrorism incidents many decades of the years. What the India had learned from those terror incidents and did reforms accordingly is very curious part. But we could see several reforms took place in worldwide after terror attacks in such respective countries.After the 11 September terrorist attacks on Washington and New York led to historic reforms of the US intelligence community.The Illinois Tactical Officers Association hosted the first MACTAC(Multiple Assault Counter Terrorist Action Capabilities) – Advanced Rapid Deployment Instructors Course on September 26-27-28, 2011. Topics addressed during the class included:Integrated tactics for first responders,Individual and team movement techniques and tactics,Team formations and multiple team awareness,Urban tactical operations,Use of force guidelines and safety protocols, Equipment needs and identification issues,Integration of multiple agency responses,Verbal skills, radio communications, and utilizing common terms,Firearms handling and deployment. As explosions in Madrid led to the reorganization of the Spanish secret services.These reforms have changed three key components of terrorism prevention and prosecution: Firstly early warning system to detect and prevent acts of terrorism,secondly an exchange of this information between the interested services / coordination of actions, thirdly prosecution of terrorists, including liquidation of channels of financing and delivery of weapons.
Russia is not exception. An attack by insurgents in Ingushetia in June 2004 and the capture of hostages in Beslan in September the same year coincided in the immediate aftermath of the Beslan siege, President of Russia ordered the reform which looked at “urgent measures to increase the efficiency of the fight against terrorism”. The entire command structure of the Internal troops also has been changed. In June, 2005 President of Russia signed the decree that has created a more regionally oriented command structure.Depending on the mission requirements there will be three types of regional structures: district, regional command and regional management. In the USA “regular” hostage barricade it would be up to local law enforcement (State, county, or municipal) depending on rules and capabilities of the forces. Terrorist related hostage situations are in the FBI’s domain (in particular, FBI Hostage Rescue Team – HRT).In the United Kingdom it’s a Metropolitan police’s domain. The Police would be responsible for negotiations and for everything before any attack to liberate hostages. The decision to start storming belongs to the Prime Minister – advised by COBRA (Cabinet Office Briefing Room A) – where upon Metropolitan Police chief signs a paper giving the SAS order to act. These structures included officers of all law enforcement and security structures of country responsible for combating terrorism and these centres are responsible for information exchange between departments. These structures are responsible for information exchange with special services of other countries. Every country that suffered large-scale attack in recent years has faced problems in co-ordinating the way the secret services and law-enforcement agencies gathered and analysed information about the preparation of attacks. Solving this problem is nearly impossible without the creation of a dedicated co-ordination structure. It is observed that there was a linkage between Chechen and international Islamic terrorists. Despite the clear implications for international cooperation these charges made, the intelligence cooperation was non-existent. Thus by the summer of 2004 the Russian intelligence response to terrorism was in complete disarray. The new structure is responsible for tactical (army) intelligence not prosecutorial intelligence. Any information exchange was supposed pass through The Common Wealth of Independent States (CIS).The CIS Antiterrorism Centre was established in 2000 to handle information exchange.

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