An antibody titer is a test that can be done to find out that a person is immune. For this test, a blood sample is sent to a laboratory and tested for antibodies. If a person has developed a sufficient level of antibodies, they may not need the booster dose of vaccine.

An important thing to be aware of before going to a booster Covid -19 dose such that • If you have a record of the previous vaccinations you have received, get your titers drawn first. • Measure your immunity level before getting vaccinated to boost it. Your titers might indicate a high immunity to a particularly Covid -19 disease, in which case you won’t need to get vaccinated for that disease. • The common mistakes people make between quantitative titers test and qualitative titers test: quantitative have a numerical value, qualitative simply

indicates “immune vs. non-immune” with no numerical value. One must be sure to get quantitative titers. • One must get lab results of IgG titers not for lab results of IgM titers. • One must get lab results of Heb B AB (Antibody) titers • If the titer for a particular Covid – 19 disease shows that you are not immune, you need to get re-vaccinated also known as getting a booster. More specifically, the quantitative serum titer is a titer with a numerical value indicating your actual degree of immunity to a disease(s). The clinical sites you may visit or be working at require documented proof of immunity in the form of quantitative titers – simply getting the vaccination is not enough. Therefore when titers are drawn they must be quantitative titers, and you must provide copies of the official laboratory printouts containing the numerical values. If any of your quantitative titers come back non – immune then consult your physician about your vaccination history – how many immunizations have you already received for the Covid – 19 disease.

The expression pattern of a gene provides indirect information about the function. Knowledge of highly selective gene expression, as well as sequence homology to a known gene family, could provide a convenient shortcut for implicating a target in a given pathway or disease. The cDNA microarray technology has helped many pharmaceutical companies to identify appropriate targets for therapeutic intervention. cDNA microarrays have also been used to monitor changes in gene expression in response to drug treatment.

cDNA microarray or DNA chip technology is a powerful new approach for simultaneously monitoring the relative expression of a large number of genes in a quantitative fashion. The development of microarray technology has been phenomenal in the past few years. It has become a standard tool in many genomics research laboratories. The reason for this popularity is that microarrays have revolutionized the approach to biological research. Instead of working on a gene-by-gene basis, scientists can now study tens of thousands of genes at once. cDNA microarray technology is rapidly advancing. Its applications to gene discovery, gene expression, and mapping have been convincingly demonstrated. The suitability of the cDNA microarray for profiling diseases and for identifying disease-related genes has been also well documented. This novel technology could provide new targets for drug development and disease therapies. It may thus provide a useful link between gene sequences and clinical medicine for both human beings and animals. cDNA microarrays seem likely to become a standard tool for both molecular biology research and clinical diagnostics.

The use of the cDNA microarray technology will advance both the prediction of adverse effects of vaccines and the detection of protective immune responses. Some pioneering studies have already shown the value of this approach. Hopefully, with the help of cDNA microarray technology, scientists can have an invention and discover the “Ideal” vaccine characteristics for Covid -19 vaccine such as • Vaccine is highly immunogenic so that a single vaccine dose provides a complete immunization regimen. • It can safely be administered simultaneously with other vaccines, either as a part of a specific combination vaccine (e.g., measles-mumps-rubella) or as separate individual vaccines. • The recommended vaccine regimen is highly efficacious in preventing disease in individual vaccine recipients, including recipients with weakened immune systems from HIV infection, severe malnutrition, malignancies, or congenital immunodeficiency. 

We need to develop better medicines to protect our society against emerging infections. There are sufficient scientific and technological possibilities to develop and produce these medicines. Currently, national and international task forces to do this are lacking. This is surprising in view of the dire consequences that can be expected from future emerging infections.

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